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Muse in Focus: Charting the Digital Humanities


Project MUSE has brought sustainable digital humanities scholarship to an ever-growing worldwide community of publishers, libraries, and readers for over 25 years. As the formats, distribution methods, and business models of digital scholarship have evolved since the 1990s, MUSE has also seen its content comment on its form, featuring works that often exhibit the concepts they are discussing, from hypertext articles to Open Access monographs. MUSE, as a pioneer of digital scholarship in the earliest days of the world wide web, remains uniquely positioned to foster rich discussions on how technology can nurture and progress the humanities well beyond print.

“MUSE in Focus: Charting the Digital Humanities” is a curated selection of content that explores the history and theory behind digital humanities, traces its course through to the present, and charts the range of paths forward as scholarly communications adapt to an increasingly digital world.


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BOOKS

Free Access
Virtual Peer Review: Teaching and Learning about Writing in Online Environments
Breuch, Lee-Ann Kastman
State University of New York Press, 2004.
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In a reassessment of peer review practices, Lee-Ann Kastman Breuch explores how computer technology changes our understanding of this activity. She defines “virtual peer review” as the use of computer technology to exchange and respond to one another’s writing in order to improve it. Arguing that peer review goes through a remediation when conducted in virtual environments, the author suggests that virtual peer review highlights a unique intersection of social theories of language and technological literacy.

Open Access
The Future of Thinking: Learning Institutions in a Digital Age
Cathy N. Davidson, David Theo Goldberg, Zoë Marie Jones
The MIT Press, 2010.
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How traditional learning institutions can become as innovative, flexible, robust, and collaborative as the best social networking sites.

Over the past two decades, the way we learn has changed dramatically. We have new sources of information and new ways to exchange and to interact with information. But our schools and the way we teach have remained largely the same for years, even centuries. What happens to traditional educational institutions when learning also takes place on a vast range of Internet sites, from Pokemon Web pages to Wikipedia? This report investigates how traditional learning institutions can become as innovative, flexible, robust, and collaborative as the best social networking sites. The authors propose an alternative definition of “institution” as a “mobilizing network”—emphasizing its flexibility, the permeability of its boundaries, its interactive productivity, and its potential as a catalyst for change—and explore the implications for higher education. The Future of Thinking reports on innovative, virtual institutions. It also uses the idea of a virtual institution both as part of its subject matter and as part of its process: the first draft of the book was hosted on a Web site for collaborative feedback and writing. The authors use this experiment in participatory writing as a test case for virtual institutions, learning institutions, and a new form of collaborative authorship. The finished version is still posted and open for comment. This book is the full-length report of the project, which was summarized in an earlier MacArthur volume, The Future of Learning Institutions in a Digital Age.

Digital Schools: How Technology Can Transform Education
Darrell M. West
Brookings Institution Press, 2012.
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<P>Nearly a century ago, famed educator John Dewey said that "if we teach today's students as we taught yesterday's, we rob them of tomorrow." That wisdom resonates more strongly than ever today, and that maxim underlies this insightful look at the present and future of education in the digital age.</P><P>As Darrell West makes clear, today's educational institutions must reinvent themselves to engage students successfully and provide them with the skills needed to compete in an increasingly global, technological, and online world. Otherwise the American education system will continue to fall woefully short in its mission to prepare the population to survive and thrive in a rapidly changing world.</P><P>West examines new models of education made possible by enhanced information technology, new approaches that will make public education in the post-industrial age more relevant, efficient, and ultimately more productive. Innovative pilot programs are popping up all over the nation, experimenting with different forms of organization and delivery systems.</P><P> <I>Digital Schools</I> surveys this promising new landscape, examining in particular personalized learning; realtime student assessment; ways to enhance teacher evaluation; the untapped potential of distance learning; and the ways in which technology can improve the effectiveness of special education and foreign language instruction. West illustrates the potential contributions of blogs, wikis, social media, and video games and augmented reality in K–12 and higher education.</P><P>Technology by itself will not remake education. But if today's schools combine increased digitization with needed improvements in organization, operations, and culture, we can overcome current barriers, produce better results, and improve the manner in which schools function. And we can get back to teaching for tomorrow, rather than for yesterday.</P>

Open Access
Hacking the Academy: New Approaches to Scholarship and Teaching from Digital Humanities
Cohen, Dan , Scheinfeldt, Joseph T
University of Michigan Press, 2013.
Higher Education in the Digital Age
William G. Bowen
Princeton University Press, 2013.
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Two of the most visible and important trends in higher education today are its exploding costs and the rapid expansion of online learning. Could the growth in online courses slow the rising cost of college and help solve the crisis of affordability? In this short and incisive book, William G. Bowen, one of the foremost experts on the intersection of education and economics, explains why, despite his earlier skepticism, he now believes technology has the potential to help rein in costs without negatively affecting student learning. As a former president of Princeton University, an economist, and author of many books on education, including the acclaimed bestseller The Shape of the River, Bowen speaks with unique expertise on the subject.

Surveying the dizzying array of new technology-based teaching and learning initiatives, including the highly publicized emergence of "massive open online courses" (MOOCs), Bowen argues that such technologies could transform traditional higher education--allowing it at last to curb rising costs by increasing productivity, while preserving quality and protecting core values. But the challenges, which are organizational and philosophical as much as technological, are daunting. They include providing hard evidence of whether online education is cost-effective in various settings, rethinking the governance and decision-making structures of higher education, and developing customizable technological platforms. Yet, Bowen remains optimistic that the potential payoff is great.

Based on the 2012 Tanner Lectures on Human Values, delivered at Stanford University, the book includes responses from Stanford president John Hennessy, Harvard University psychologist Howard Gardner, Columbia University literature professor Andrew Delbanco, and Coursera cofounder Daphne Koller.

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Free Access
Digital Critical Editions
Daniel Apollon, Claire Belisle
University of Illinois Press, 2014.
Free Access
The University in the 21st century: Teaching the New Enlightenment at the Dawn of the Digital Age
Elkana, Yehuda, Klopper, Hannes
Central European University Press, 2016.
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This volume addresses the broad spectrum of challenges confronting the university of the 21st century. Elkana and Klöpper place special emphasis on the questions regarding the very idea and purposes of universities, especially as viewed through curriculum—what is taught—and pedagogy—how it is taught. The ideas recommended here for reform concern especially undergraduate or Bachelor degree programs in all areas of study, from the humanities and social sciences to the natural sciences, the technical fields, law, medicine, and other professions. The core thesis of this book rests on the emergence of a ‘New Enlightenment’, which requires a revolution in curriculum and teaching in order to translate the academic philosophy of global contextualism into universal practice or application. The university is asked to revamp teaching in order to foster critical thinking that would serve students their entire lives. This book calls for universities to become truly integrated rather than remaining collections of autonomous agencies more committed to competition among themselves than cooperation in the larger interest of learning.

Open Access
Knowledge Unbound: Selected Writings on Open Access, 2002–2011
Peter Suber, Robert Darnton
The MIT Press, 2016.
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Influential writings make the case for open access to research, explore its implications, and document the early struggles and successes of the open access movement.

Peter Suber has been a leading advocate for open access since 2001 and has worked full time on issues of open access since 2003. As a professor of philosophy during the early days of the internet, he realized its power and potential as a medium for scholarship. As he writes now, “it was like an asteroid crash, fundamentally changing the environment, challenging dinosaurs to adapt, and challenging all of us to figure out whether we were dinosaurs.” When Suber began putting his writings and course materials online for anyone to use for any purpose, he soon experienced the benefits of that wider exposure. In 2001, he started a newsletter—the Free Online Scholarship Newsletter, which later became the SPARC Open Access Newsletter—in which he explored the implications of open access for research and scholarship. This book offers a selection of some of Suber's most significant and influential writings on open access from 2002 to 2010.

In these texts, Suber makes the case for open access to research; answers common questions, objections, and misunderstandings; analyzes policy issues; and documents the growth and evolution of open access during its most critical early decade.

Education and Social Media: Toward a Digital Future
Greenhow, Christine, Sonnevend, Julia, Agur, Colin
The MIT Press, 2016.
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How are widely popular social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram transforming how teachers teach, how kids learn, and the very foundations of education? What controversies surround the integration of social media in students’ lives? The past decade has brought increased access to new media, and with this new opportunities and challenges for education. In this book, leading scholars from education, law, communications, sociology, and cultural studies explore the digital transformation now taking place in a variety of educational contexts. The contributors examine such topics as social media usage in schools, online youth communities, and distance learning in developing countries; the disruption of existing educational models of how knowledge is created and shared; privacy; accreditation; and the tension between the new ease of sharing and copyright laws. Case studies examine teaching media in K–12 schools and at universities; tuition-free, open education powered by social media, as practiced by the University of the People; new financial models for higher education; the benefits and challenges of MOOCS (Massive Open Online Courses); social media and teacher education; and the civic and individual advantages of teens’ participatory play.

Open Access
Disrupting the Digital Humanities
DorothyKim, JesseStommel
Punctum Books, 0.
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All too often, defining a discipline becomes more an exercise of exclusion than inclusion. Disrupting the Digital Humanities seeks to rethink how we map disciplinary terrain by directly confronting the gatekeeping impulse of many other so-called field-defining collections. What is most beautiful about the work of the Digital Humanities is exactly the fact that it can’t be tidily anthologized. In fact, the desire to neatly define the Digital Humanities (to filter the DH-y from the DH) is a way of excluding the radically diverse work that actually constitutes the field. This collection, then, works to push and prod at the edges of the Digital Humanities — to open the Digital Humanities rather than close it down. Ultimately, it’s exactly the fringes, the outliers, that make the Digital Humanities both heterogeneous and rigorous. This collection does not constitute yet another reservoir for the new Digital Humanities canon. Rather, its aim is less about assembling content as it is about creating new conversations. Building a truly communal space for the digital humanities requires that we all approach that space with a commitment to: 1) creating open and non-hierarchical dialogues; 2) championing non-traditional work that might not otherwise be recognized through conventional scholarly channels; 3) amplifying marginalized voices; 4) advocating for students and learners; and 5) sharing generously and openly to support the work of our peers.

Free Access
Diversifying Digital Learning: Online Literacy and Educational Opportunity
Tierney, William G., Corwin, Zoë B., Ochsner, Amanda
Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018.
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Many schools and programs in low-income neighborhoods lack access to the technological resources, including equipment and Internet service, that those in middle- and upper-income neighborhoods have at their fingertips. This inequity creates a persistent digital divide—not a simple divide in access to technology per se, but a divide in both formal and informal digital literacy that further marginalizes youths from low-income, minoritized, and first-generation communities. Diversifying Digital Learning outlines the pervasive problems that exist with ensuring digital equity and identifies successful strategies to tackle the issue. Bringing together top scholars to discuss how digital equity in education might become a key goal in American education, this book is structured to provide a framework for understanding how historically underrepresented students most effectively engage with technology—and how institutions may help or hinder students’ ability to develop and capitalize on digital literacies. This book will appeal to readers who are well versed in the diverse uses of social media and technologies, as well as less technologically savvy educators and policy analysts in educational organizations such as schools, afterschool programs, colleges, and universities. Addressing the intersection of digital media, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic class in a frank manner, the lessons within this compelling work will help educators enable students in grades K–12, as well as in postsecondary institutions, to participate in a rapidly changing world framed by shifting new media technologies. Contributors: Young Whan Choi, Zoë B. Corwin, Christina Evans, Julie Flapan, Joanna Goode, Erica Hodgin, Joseph Kahne, Suneal Kolluri, Lynette Kvasny, David J. Leonard, Jane Margolis, Crystle Martin, Safiya Umoja Noble, Amanda Ochsner, Fay Cobb Payton, Antar A. Tichavakunda, William G. Tierney, S. Craig Watkins

Open Access
Debates in the Digital Humanities 2019
Matthew K. Gold, Lauren F. Klein
University of Minnesota Press, 2019.
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The latest installment of a digital humanities bellwether
 

Contending with recent developments like the shocking 2016 U.S. Presidential election, the radical transformation of the social web, and passionate debates about the future of data in higher education, Debates in the Digital Humanities 2019 brings together a broad array of important, thought-provoking perspectives on the field’s many sides. With a wide range of subjects including gender-based assumptions made by algorithms, the place of the digital humanities within art history, data-based methods for exhuming forgotten histories, video games, three-dimensional printing, and decolonial work, this book assembles a who’s who of the field in more than thirty impactful essays.

Contributors: Rafael Alvarado, U of Virginia; Taylor Arnold, U of Richmond; James Baker, U of Sussex; Kathi Inman Berens, Portland State U; David M. Berry, U of Sussex; Claire Bishop, The Graduate Center, CUNY; James Coltrain, U of Nebraska–Lincoln; Crunk Feminist Collective; Johanna Drucker, U of California–Los Angeles; Jennifer Edmond, Trinity College; Marta Effinger-Crichlow, New York City College of Technology–CUNY; M. Beatrice Fazi, U of Sussex; Kevin L. Ferguson, Queens College–CUNY; Curtis Fletcher, U of Southern California; Neil Fraistat, U of Maryland; Radhika Gajjala, Bowling Green State U; Michael Gavin, U of South Carolina; Andrew Goldstone, Rutgers U; Andrew Gomez, U of Puget Sound; Elyse Graham, Stony Brook U; Brian Greenspan, Carleton U; John Hunter, Bucknell U; Steven J. Jackson, Cornell U; Collin Jennings, Miami U; Lauren Kersey, Saint Louis U; Kari Kraus, U of Maryland; Seth Long, U of Nebraska, Kearney; Laura Mandell, Texas A&M U; Rachel Mann, U of South Carolina; Jason Mittell, Middlebury College; Lincoln A. Mullen, George Mason U; Trevor Muñoz, U of Maryland; Safiya Umoja Noble, U of Southern California; Jack Norton, Normandale Community College; Bethany Nowviskie, U of Virginia; Élika Ortega, Northeastern U; Marisa Parham, Amherst College; Jussi Parikka, U of Southampton; Kyle Parry, U of California, Santa Cruz; Brad Pasanek, U of Virginia; Stephen Ramsay, U of Nebraska–Lincoln; Matt Ratto, U of Toronto; Katie Rawson, U of Pennsylvania; Ben Roberts, U of Sussex; David S. Roh, U of Utah; Mark Sample, Davidson College; Moacir P. de Sá Pereira, New York U; Tim Sherratt, U of Canberra; Bobby L. Smiley, Vanderbilt U; Lauren Tilton, U of Richmond; Ted Underwood, U of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Megan Ward, Oregon State U; Claire Warwick, Durham U; Alban Webb, U of Sussex; Adrian S. Wisnicki, U of Nebraska–Lincoln. 

Free Access
Intersectionality in Digital Humanities:
Barbara Bordalejo, Roopika Risam
Arc Humanities Press, 2019.
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As digital humanities has expanded in scope and content, questions of how to negotiate the overlapping influences of race, class, gender, sexuality, nation, and other dimensions that shape data, archives, and methodologies have come to the fore. Taking up these concerns, the authors in this volume explore their effects on the methodological, political, and ethical practices of digital humanities.

ISSUES

Cinema Journal
48, Number 2, Winter 2009
University of Texas Press
Free Access
Journal of Scholarly Publishing
Special Issue: Special Issue: Digital Publishing for Humanities and Social Sciences
Volume 48, Number 2, January 2017, supplement
University of Toronto Press
Free Access
Digital Philology: A Journal of Medieval Cultures
Special Issue: The Estoria de Espanna Digital
Edited by Aengus Ward
Volume 7, Number 1, Spring 2018, supplement
Johns Hopkins University Press

ARTICLES

Free Access
Hyperweb
Adrian Miles
Postmodern Culture Volume 6, Number 3, May 1996: - .
Free Access
Hypercapital
David Golumbia
Postmodern Culture Volume 7, Number 1, September 1996: - .
Free Access
AlphaWeb
Diana Reed Slattery
Postmodern Culture Volume 7, Number 3, May 1997: - .
Free Access
Editor's Introduction
Stuart Moulthrop
Postmodern Culture Volume 7, Number 3, May 1997: - .
Free Access
Singin' In the Rain: A Hypertextual Reading
Adrian Miles
Postmodern Culture Volume 8, Number 2, January 1998: None - None.
Free Access
Crashing the System? Hypertext and Scholarship on American Culture
Roy Rosenzweig
American Quarterly Volume 51, Number 2, June 1999: 237 - 246.
Free Access
Hypertext Scholarship and Media Studies
James Castonguay
American Quarterly Volume 51, Number 2, June 1999: 247 - 249.
Free Access
Print Is Flat, Code Is Deep: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis
N. Katherine Hayles
Poetics Today Volume 25, Number 1, Spring 2004: 67 - 90.
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Lulled into somnolence by five hundred years of print, literary analysis should awaken to the importance of media-specific analysis, a mode of critical attention which recognizes that all texts are instantiated and that the nature of the medium in which they are instantiated matters. Central to repositioning critical inquiry, so it can attend to the specificity of the medium, is a more robust notion of materiality. Materiality is reconceptualized as the interplay between a text's physical characteristics and its signifying strategies, a move that entwines instantiation and signification at the outset. This definition opens the possibility of considering texts as embodied entities while still maintaining a central focus on interpretation. It makes materiality an emergent property, so that it cannot be specified in advance, as if it were a pre-given entity. Rather, materiality is open to debate and interpretation, ensuring that discussions about the text's "meaning" will also take into account its physical specificity as well.

Following the emphasis on media-specific analysis, nine points can be made about the specificities of electronic hypertext: they are dynamic images; they include both analogue resemblance and digital coding; they are generated through fragmentation and recombination; they have depth and operate in three dimensions; they are written in code as well as natural language; they are mutable and transformable; they are spaces to navigate; they are written and read in distributed cognitive environments; and they initiate and demand cyborg reading practices.

Free Access
Scholar as E-Publisher: The Future Role of [Anonymous] Peer Review within Online Publishing
Thomas H.P. Gould
Journal of Scholarly Publishing Volume 41, Number 4, July 2010: 428 - 448.
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The advent of online journals has opened a vast opportunity for small journals published by a variety of institutions. It also has given scholars many more options, from more general publications to far more journals addressing very narrowly defined subjects, and it suggests that in the near future the role of online journals and peer review will radically change. The author proposes roles for user-generated content and university libraries in the evaluation and publication of research.

Free Access
Notes from the Frontier: Digital Scholarship and the Future of Theatre Studies
Debra Caplan
Theatre Journal Volume 67, Number 2, May 2015: 347 - 359.
Free Access
A Feminist Digital Humanities Pedagogy beyond the Classroom
Jessica Despain
Transformations: The Journal of Inclusive Scholarship and Pedagogy Volume 26, Number 1, 2016: 64 - 73.
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This article examines the set of concerns occupying feminist educators and scholars in the 1990s to imagine what a feminist digital humanities (DH) pedagogy should look like in the twenty-first century. The article draws examples from The Wide, Wide World Digital Edition, a project involving intensive collaborations between students and faculty at a regional university. The article summarizes research that indicates one reason for the lack of women and people of color in the computer sciences is a pedagogy that does not emphasize social, historical, and global problem-solving. The digital humanities could be a site wherein a successful, equal partnership between the computer sciences and the humanities might address diverse approaches to global issues and, in this manner, successfully attract underrep-resented students. The institutionalization of the digital humanities, however, has limited the field’s range of concerns and topics. A feminist DH pedagogy must include students as equal researchers, operate with an infrastructure that makes the labor accessible to students with a variety of abilities, include the constant evaluation of underlying technological structures in a social context, consider content as well as technology, and create a community beyond the classroom. While projects that engage women and people of color in these ways are still occurring, the project argues that greater funding support and infrastructure would make opportunities like these more available to students and, as a result, ensure more diverse scholars and scholarship in coming the years.

Free Access
Teaching Guerilla Praxis: Making Critical Digital Humanities Research Politically Relevant
Anthony Bayani Rodriguez
Transformations: The Journal of Inclusive Scholarship and Pedagogy Volume 27, Number 2, 2017: 212 - 216.
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abstract:

This article reflects on the relevance and transformative possibilities of incorporating a framework of "guerilla praxis" into digital humanities curricula in the early twenty-first century. Engaging in guerilla praxis in the classroom creates opportunities for students to use devices such as laptops and smartphones as tools for research and critical analysis and also for creating and sharing knowledge in ways that work with, rather than against, the technological shifts and social movements of the early twenty-first century. Turning classrooms into digital research hubs for studying and sharing knowledge about current grassroots movements for social change allows students and educators to collaboratively participate in advocating for new visions of democracy and participatory education. In addition to transforming the way students and educators approach the work in the classroom, critical digital humanities pedagogy that incorporates a framework of guerilla praxis has the potential to reorient twenty-first-century institutions of higher education as spaces of critical social engagement and public service.

Free Access
Women's History and Digital Media: Uniting Scholarship and Pedagogy
Shelley E. Rose
Journal of Women's History Volume 30, Number 3, Fall 2018: 157 - 169.
Free Access
Attitudes toward Open Access, Open Peer Review, and Altmetrics among Contributors to Spanish Scholarly Journals
Francisco Segado-Boj, Juan Martín-Quevedo, Juan José Prieto-Gutiérrez
Journal of Scholarly Publishing Volume 50, Number 1, October 2018: 48 - 70.
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Abstract:

This paper aims for a better understanding of the perspectives of contributors to Spanish academic journals regarding open access, open peer review, and altmetrics. Specifically, it explores how age, gender, years of professional experience, and perception and use of social media influence authors’ opinions of these developments in scholarly publishing. A sample of 295 contributors to Spanish academic journals participated in a survey about the aforementioned topics. They were found to hold a favourable opinion of open access but were more cautious about open peer review and altmetrics. The responses of younger and female scholars indicated more reluctance to accept open peer review practices. A positive attitude toward social networks did not necessarily translate into enthusiasm for emerging trends in scholarly publishing. Despite this, ResearchGate users were more aware of altmetrics.